Irish history stretches back to 8000 B.C. when the first known settlement of hunter-gathers arrived from continental Europe. From pre-history, to Christianity to the Vikings and the Normans modern Ireland is built on a rich tapestry of history.
Happily a great deal of evidence of the island's rich history is still visible through archaeological and historical sites, castles and beauty spots. All of them playing a part in telling the story of Ireland.
Here is IrishCentral.com's pick of the top ten historical sites in Ireland -
1. Newgrange, County Meath
Dating back to 3200 B.C the passage tomb at Newgrange is older than the pyramids in Egypt and is officially a World Heritage site.
A large mound, spread over an acre is surrounded by 97, uniquely carved kerbstones. The cremated remains of the dead were buried a large stone basins under the mound in a chamber assessable by a narrow passage.
At dawn on the December 21, the shortest day of the year, every year, sunlight shines directly into the central chamber of the tomb. It is believed that this was an ancient way of measuring the passage of time, like a calendar for the ancient farmers, or that the light has some religious significance for those in the afterlife.
Newgrange is part of the Bru na Boinne complex which includes similar tombs at Knowth and Dowth.
2. Hill of Tara, County Meath
The Hill of Tara is also located near the River Boyne in Meath. It is an archaeological complex that runs between Navan and Dunshaughlin and contains a number of ancient monuments. According to tradition it was the seat of the High King of Ireland (Árd Rí na hÉireann).
The oldest archaeological site at Tara is the Mound of Hostages, which dates back to 2500 B.C.
The hill itself is 500 feet high and has some of the most panoramic views of the plains in Meath.
3. Rock of Cashel, County Tipperary
Is not a rock at all, a usual misperception of tourists reading the name off the map.
This Rock of Cashel was a fortress in the 4th century. The medieval structure with four edifices including the Connac’s Chapel, the round tower, the cathedral and the Hall of the Vicars Choral.
It was the traditional seat of the Kings of Munster for several hundred years before the Norman invasion. Although very little of the original structure survives the building which have survived date from the 12th and 13th century.
4. Ceide Fields, County Mayo
The Ceide Fields are a Neolithic landscape which date back to 5000 B.C. They are the oldest known field systems in the world. Their name "Ceide Fields" literally means "fields of the flat-topped hill".
The field system was discovered under some bog. The rocks delineating the field system was originally discovered by a school teacher cutting for turf in the bog in the 1930s. It took over 40 years to unravel the true significance of the fields. Fields, houses and tombs had been concealed under the bog for thousands of years.
5. Clonmacnoise, County Offaly
Clonmacnoise is one of Ireland's most important monasteries and is located on the banks of the River Shannon. It was founded in 545 by Ciaran of Clonmacnoise. Until the 9th century it had very strong ties with the Kings of Connacht.
Its strategic location also helped it to be become a center of religion, learning, craftsmanship and trade. Together with Clonard it is one of the most famous in Ireland and continues to be visited by scholars from all over Europe.
6. Jerpoint Abbey, County Kilkenny
Jerpoint Abbey is a well-known Cistercian abbey founded in the 12th century. It's most famous asset is its sculptured cloister arcade with unique carvings.
It was constructed in 1180 by Donogh O'Donoghoe, the King of Osraige and is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. The monastery thrived until the Dissolution of the Monasteries by Henry VIII.
7. Blarney Stone and Blarney Castle, County Cork
Six miles northwest of County Cork, Blarney Castle and the Blarney stone date back to 1446. The castle is a medieval stronghold on the River Martin. Although earlier fortifications were built on the same spot what is left standing today dates back to the MacCarthy dynasty, King of Desmond.
The castle and the stone are one of the most popular tourist attractions in Ireland. Legend has it that if you kiss the Blarney stone you will have the "gift of the gab" meaning clever, flattering or coaxing talk".
8. Kilkenny Castle, Killkenny City
Killkenny Castle is certainly one of Ireland's most impressive fortresses. The castle dates back to 1191 and stands with three tall towers.
Although some of the stone has been replaced the original was built by William Marshal, the 1st Earl of Pembroke to control the crossing point on the River Nore.
The castle is now run by the Office of Public Works and sits in the midst of beautiful parkland.
9. Leap Castle, County Offaly
Not only is Leap Castle and extremely historically important castle but it is also said to one of the most haunted locations in Ireland. This castle has been the scene of some truly appalling acts.
It was built in the 15th century by the O'Bannon family and was originally called "Leap of the O'Bannons". In 1513 the Earl of Kildare, Gerald FitzGerald attempted to seized the castle and three years later attacked again. In 1557 the O'Carrolls had possession.
Within the O'Carroll family over the years there was great rivalry which culminated in murders and killings in the chapel. This is just a brief chapter of the castle's sordid history. Later when the castle was being studied a dungeon where people had been left to die was discovered.
10. Skellig Michael, County Kerry
Skelling Michael (which literally means Michael's rock) is a steep and rocky island in the Atlantic Ocean. It was founded in the 7th century and for 600 years it was the center of monastic life for Irish Christian monks.
In 1996 it was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site but it is better known as one Europe's better known but least accessible monasteries. As a site it is very well preserved and the Spartan conditions inside the monastery illustrate the ascetic life of the Irish Christians. The monks lived in "beehive" huts perched over the dangerous cliffs.
Originally published in 2011.
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